History of Greek Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC,  or possibly earlier. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages. Proto-Greek -speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev The Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire.
Vernacular Architecture in the British Isles
Anew and efficient method for the synthesis of novel 3-acetylcoumarins oxadiazoles derivatives Molecules. Application of Exp-function method for nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients Physics Letters A. New traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations Physics Letters A. Energy, 14
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The science that uses tree rings dated to their exact year of formation to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of processes in the physical and cultural sciences. The beginning of earlywood formation and the end of the latewood formation form one annual ring, which usually extends around the entire circumference of the tree. A tree-ring chronology therefore represents departures of growth for any one year compared to average growth. For example, an index of 0.
Usually this process tries to remove the growth trends due to normal physiological aging processes and changes in the surrounding forest community. Principles of Dendrochronology Henri D. The Time is Right: Redefining the Principles in Dendrochronology. This is because, as a scientific discipline evolves, so too must the principles to which it adheres. Over the past three years, I have been working on revising these principles and I’ve presented numerous talks across the U. I kept adding new principles while simultaneously revising or even deleting long familiar principles.
Eventually, I settled on the principles below as being representative of those to which we actually should adhere and have been adhering. I’ve sought input from individuals on these revisions and to all of them I’m especially grateful.
Understanding the drivers of these growth changes is important to predict further growth and adapt forest management. To disentangle the different drivers of growth changes, it is common practice to apply mixed modeling techniques to tree-ring width series. Mixed modeling requires precise, replicated and well cross-dated tree-ring width series.
The goal of this study was to compare a recently developed ring width measuring method based on X-ray Computed Tomography images CT scan with the standard LINTAB measuring method and to examine whether the same growth trends are detected with both methods using common beech Fagus sylvatica and sessile oak trees Quercus petraea as a case study.
[email protected] USA Office Tel: 25 E Montgomery Street Baltimore, MD UK Office Tel: 21 Bartholomew Square Bristol BS 7 0QY. Tree-ring dating of historic buildings. Middlekauf Farm. Client – Owner: Keedy House. Client – Owner: Red House. Client – Owner: Mount Vernon USA. Client – Mount Vernon.
If you are American, SSC endorses voting in this presidential election. Andrew Gelman, Nate Silver, and Aaron Edlin calculate the chance that a single vote will determine the election ie break a tie in a state that breaks an Electoral College tie. It ranges from about one in ten million if you live in a swing state to one in a billion if you live in a very safe state. The average American has a one in sixty million chance of determining the election results.
The paper was from the election, which was a pro-Obama landslide; since this election is closer the chance of determining it may be even higher. But Presidents do shift budgetary priorities a lot. Neither of these are pure costs — Obamacare buys us more health care, and military presence in Iraq buys us [mumble] — but if you think these are less or more efficient ways to spend money than other possible uses, then they represent ways that having one President might be better than another.
In order to add signal rather than noise to the election results, we have to be better than the average voter. I recommend the Outside View — looking for measurable indicators correlated with ability to make good choices. IQ might be another. Suppose you live in a swing state. If you value the amount of time it takes to vote at less than that, voting is conceivably a good use of your time.
SSC endorses voting for Hillary Clinton if you live in a swing state.
Camping gave us easy access to the ice cap and the northern part of the valley. We had some really good weather — apart from a short hail downpour, which made for great views of the ice. It got pretty cold at night though, and we woke up to frozen boots and frost on the tent. Fortunately, we had plenty of hot porridge and coffee to wake us up.
What is dendrochronology. Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating has been available as a recognized scientific technique since the early s. Simply stated, trees in temperate zones (and some in tropical zones) grow one visible ring per calendrical year.
By Will Truax My revolving focus is often driven by a particular bridge, or its Truss Type, or an interest in its developer or Patent holder. My current attentions have once again revolved around to focus on something of deep and long interest, something that is the core of who I am and what I do. And interestingly something of a mystery, one which is perhaps this very year, slipping into its third century of wide use.
In part with a growing understanding that the non-traditional layout used by the shops in which the first frames I helped cut did not have a practical level of success, and in part because it was a connection to history and a historical continuum which drew me to this Trade. Scribe being the direct transfer of information from one timber or set of timbers to another — Square Rule being the shaping of timbers to a mathematical constant at each of its connections And have gone on to, as a rule not an exception, regularly practice both, and also to teach traditional layouts in a series of workshops over the last dozen or so years.
Though in part it is out of preference, it is happily also out of practicality that I lean towards the Scribe side of things. With much of my work being Bridge related, and with Timber Bridges being the seeming lone exception this due to slightly dissimilar pieces in what appear to be like, redundant and, mirror image Panels — Small inconsistencies driven by camber to an amazingly rapid and geographically vast shift here on the North American continent away from variations of Scribe which had been the norm for timber carpentry for millennia.
Scribe layout survived all the many changes humanity brought to its fellowship and the need to house itself, including this migration to a new continent, this particularly well exemplified here forty or so miles from the coast and just outside of first period settlement in my little patch of Northern New England. Long hostilities with the neighboring colony of New France including cross border raiding, and raids encouraged from those neighboring colonials among Tribal peoples from both sides of the border.
As is found elsewhere in the New World, settlement patterns heavily influenced construction, in that colonials brought with them what they knew. Framing style, technique and typology were brought from the Mother Country. The Bernhard Barn is Square Ruled, and though the exact year it was first built is not yet determined.
Tree rings are used to calibrate radiocarbon measurements. Calibration is necessary to account for changes in the global radiocarbon concentration over time. Results of calibration are reported as age ranges calculated by the intercept method or the probability method, which use calibration curves. The internationally agreed calibration curves for the period reaching as far back as BC are those produced by PJ Reimer et al.
Calibration curves have a dendro timescale on the x-axis and radiocarbon years on the y-axis.
dating to historic buildings in eastern North America had to do with recognizing or generating opportunities for the interests of quite different disciplines to intersect. In New England this opportunity came following the discovery of an old-growth stand of red .
The Abbot also sat as a peer in Parliament. The last abbot, John Reeve, was given a pension, and may have lived his remaining days in this house in Crown Street. During the time of the abbey any form of local self determination by the townspeople of Bury existed solely through the Candlemas Guild and later the Guildhall Feoffment Trust. The property of the Abbey of St Edmund was surrendered to the Crown on 4th November but much of the wealth had already been confiscated in the previous year.
After the dissolution in , the rights of the Abbot returned to the Crown. The government of the town was largely ignored by the new owners of the abbey lands and privileges, and any joint actions continued to be carried out through the Guildhall Feoffees, largely without any formal legal backing. Over the next hundred years local government would replace the Abbots’ Rule, but religious differences would cause bitter divisions in the country.
However, the town had now lost the use of the great library of the abbey, the access to the several hospitals which the monks had run, the grammar school was closed, and the various charities and good works of the monks were suddenly gone. The poorest in society would suffer most from many of these changes. The library of books at the abbey does not seem to have attracted much attention from collectors at the time, and M R James thought that they were mostly acquired by local Bury people.
It would probably be 50 years before there was much interest in them from collectors.
What is dendrochronology
Staff What is dendrochronology Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating has been available as a recognized scientific technique since the early s. Simply stated, trees in temperate zones and some in tropical zones grow one visible ring per calendrical year. For the entire period of a tree’s life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that in some way reflects the climatic and environmental conditions in which the tree grew. These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing in the same geographical zone and under similar climatic conditions.
Following these tree-ring patterns, the sum of which we refer to as chronologies, from living trees back through time, we can thus compare wood from old or ancient structures to our known chronologies, match the ring patterns a technique we call cross-dating , and determine precisely the age of the wood used by the ancient builder.
I. If you are American, SSC endorses voting in this presidential election. Andrew Gelman, Nate Silver, and Aaron Edlin calculate the chance that a single vote will determine the election (ie break a tie in a state that breaks an Electoral College tie). It ranges from about one in ten million (if you live in a swing state) to one in a billion (if you live in a very safe state).
In repairs were undertaken to the roof of the Library, converted from the monastic Refectory or Frater. This roof comprises 13 arch-braced collar-trusses with curved V-struts alternating with straight cross-bracing, sitting on inner and outer wall-plates above which are four tiers of bare-faced butt purlins and a ridge piece. The high quality of the carpentry is emphasised by the liberal use of mouldings and chamfers on all exposed structural members, with the unusual feature of three tiers of straight cross-bracing between the purlins with the collars, arch-braces and ashlars all having their faces elaborately carved with sunk blind-tracery.
The roof has typically been ascribed to the fifteenth century on stylistic grounds, but due to its unusual design, this dating was tentative at best. Two estimated felling date ranges for the roof straddle Wolfeton is rather narrower than most other examples, and it had a ceiling, where most were open to the roof. Commissioned by English Heritage. The roof has double trenched purlins with downward wind braces to the lower purlin, and queen struts to the principal rafters with a slightly higher collar, clearly designed for habitation.
Two timbers, a fireplace lintel and a frame member in the rear wing 15 East Street were sampled, but neither dated. Dating commissioned by the National Trust. This is a two-phase thatched cottage which forms part of the Kingston Lacy Estate, now owned by the National Trust.